Tuesday, October 17, 2017

The Flintlock Muzzle-Loader Versus the Modern Breach-Loader for long term wilderness living.



The Flintlock Muzzle-Loader Versus the Modern Breach-Loader for long term wilderness living.

The advantages of the breach-loader.


1) The breach-loader is easy to load, & repeaters are fast to reload.
2) Some rifles are accurate over a long distance.
3) The shotgun is fairly versatile but a short distance gun only.
4) The .22 rimfire rifle ammunition is light in comparison to larger calibers so you can carry a reasonable amount of ammo.
The disadvantages of the breach-loader.
The larger calibers use heavy ammunition, that is the weight of the brass shells combined with the lead is heavy. The 12 gauge shotgun ammunition is very heavy, so in both these cases you may be limited as to how much ammo you can carry with you. You could reload your own shells using the smaller & lighter hand loader, but you will still have to carry spare primers & possibly lead as well.
The .22 rimfire has its limitations when it comes to what game you can kill with it. Small to medium game should not be a problem with well placed shots, but the .22 rimfire does not have the power to consistently shoot larger game, i.e. larger game is more likely to get away wounded.
Advantages of a Flintlock Muzzle-loader.

1)      Ammo is less expensive than a modern equivalent calibre firearm.
2)    The smoothbore is very versatile, being able to digest round ball, bird shot, & buckshot, or any combination of two of these (can also use minies/conical slugs).
3)    The fusil is lighter to carry than a modern equivalent sized gun.
4)   You can vary the load if needs be.
5)    The smoothbore will digest other projectiles besides lead.
6)   Lead can be retrieved from downed game & remoulded with a simple mould & lead ladle. This means that you can carry less lead, & more of the lighter gunpowder.
7)    You can make your own gunpowder.
8)    You can use the lock to make fire without using gunpowder.
9)   You can use gunpowder for gunpowder tinder fire lighting if needs be.
10) IF the lock should malfunction (these are very robust & it is not likely) you can easily repair it if you are carrying a few spare springs & a few simple tools.
11)   If you do not have any spare parts & the lock malfunctions, you can easily convert it to a tinderlock or matchlock & continue using it.
12) You do not need a reloader, brass shells, caps, or primers. The latter have been known to break down in damp conditions or if they are stored for too long.
13)  Wadding for ball or shot is available from natural plant materials or homemade leather or rawhide.
14)Less chance of being affected by future ammunition control legislation.
15) Gunpowder is easily obtainable providing you have a muzzle-loader registered in your name regardless of calibre (NSW).
16) A .32 calibre flintlock rifle is more powerful than a .22 rimfire, less expensive to feed, more accurate over a greater distance, able to take small & medium sized game, & other than not being able to use shot (unless it is smoothbore), it has all the attributes of the other flintlocks. For larger game you can load with conical slugs, which of course you can make yourself in the field.
17) Damage from a .62 calibre or .70 calibre pistol or long arm is in the extreme. Wounded prey is unlikely to escape.
18)  By using buck & ball you are unlikely to miss your target. This load is capable of taking out more than one target.
19) There is less kick-back to a muzzle-loading gun.
20)            Antique Flintlock muzzle-loading guns do not require a license, registration, or a permit to purchase in NSW Australia.
The disadvantages of a flintlock muzzle-loader.
The muzzle-loading rifle is slower to load than a single shot breach-loader. Smoothbores are a little faster to load if you are using cartridges, but they are still slower to load than a modern breach-loader.
It takes skill & knowledge to get the best performance from a flintlock, but once learnt you should have no problems.
Gun flints need knapping from time to time to keep them sharp.
You can get misfires on occasions if you fail to keep the gun flint sharp, or if the gun flint should become loose in the jaws of the cock.

If anyone can add to this article I welcome your input.
Keith.







The problems with some preppers today.

The problems with some preppers today.

One problem some preppers seem to have is the inability to prepare for a variety of disasters. This is really not that hard, yet many just don’t get it. They also have what is known as 24 hour & 72 hour bug out bags. Why not just have a bag that will carry you through long term? How do you know it is only going to last 24 hours?!!!
Modern gadgets are a big problem because they are promoted to look so exciting & necessary. When in fact many if not all modern gadgets are likely to fail or run out in the first 6 months. Then this so called prepper will find themselves living a Paleolithic lifestyle trying to learn primitive skills, or they will simply die.

Why don’t many preppers see the common sense in adopting sustainable equipment & skills from the 18th or 19th centuries? Well many treat prepping as simply a hobby, they like the idea of being self-reliant, but in fact they don’t really expect to ever have to face a major shtf situation. For these people it is all about going camping & using the gadgets. If a ferocerium rod breaks or deteriorates, they simply purchase another; in fact many carry a variety of fire lighting tools, none of which are sustainable over a long period of time.
Modern gadgets take up room in the pack & they add weight. Once they have become useless they are discarded, BUT, these gadgets were taking up room in the bug-out bag where real priority items should have been stored! Now there is neither!

Do yourself a favour, keep the life straw if you want, definitely keep the modern medical kit. Get rid of everything else & start again. Look to the 18th & 19th centuries for practical sustainable equipment that will keep you alive in relative comfort in a long term wilderness living situation, & don't forget to learn those primitive skills!
Keith.


Monday, October 16, 2017

A Look At What Sustainable Survival Means. Or, Learning From History.


A Look At What Sustainable Survival Means. Or, Learning From History.
The fur trade in America’s west lasted just 15 years, from 1825 to 1840. Why do I choose to use this place for this article? Because this event in this time period better explains the point I am trying to make.
These Rocky Mountain trappers did not travel on foot unless for some reason they had no choice. They needed a horse to get around & they needed more horses to carry the beaver pelts that they trapped & the steel traps themselves. The Rocky Mountains were & probably still are a formidable place. The biggest danger to the trapper’s survival was unfriendly Indians such as the Blackfoot, & the grizzly bear.

In this period of time the percussion gun became available, but the Mountain Men refused to use these more efficient guns because in the wilderness situation they were in, they were not reliable. Once a year traders would travel to the Rocky Mountains with supplies to trade for beaver skins, but they could not sell the percussion gun, there were simply too many things that could go wrong with this newer gun, & they were isolated for 12 months at a time. The flintlock however was reliable; it was one way or another sustainable. That flintlock was the only gun or rifle they carried although some may also have been carrying flintlock pistols.
The rest of their equipment also needed to be sustainable; they could not afford to carry anything that was not of the best quality. The ordinary butcher knife was their hunting knife, the tomahawk along with the hunting knife served as a working tool & for defence. The trade kettle served for the cooking of stews as a change from roasted meat. They carried flint & steel for making fire because again it was the most reliable & sustainable method available to them. They could also make fire using the lock of their flintlock gun.
So perhaps you might think about what equipment you have at the moment, or if you have not yet purchased any survival equipment intended for long term survival, you might consider purchasing the older style more sustainable items instead of the modern gadgetry that is not sustainable & will eventually let you down.
Difficult to say how many trappers actually survived until the end of this western fur trade, but we do know that some decided to stay in the mountains, & that others returned to the cities. History records that some of the notable trappers died in a very short time from catching a virus after returning to the city!

Keith.

Sunday, October 15, 2017

Barcaldine police chief Timothy Misson faces firearms charges after losing weapons licence

How many more police are breaking the law? These are the people who are the real threat. All these gun control measures aimed at law abiding licenced gun owners & yet we have criminals within our police service! I think the government should clean up its own back yard before blaming law abiding licenced gun owning citizens!
What do you want to bet that some of this police officer's guns came from the firearms amnesty collection!


Saturday, October 14, 2017

Gun Control & Anti-Self Defence Laws in Australia. Why?


Gun Control & Anti-Self Defence Laws in Australia. Why?

I have a lot of things going through my mind right now, so please excuse me if this post seems a little staggered.
First of all I think we need to establish the fact that the Government does not give a damn about the welfare & safety of its citizens. This is important, because the safety of its citizens is the reason given for the government’s gun control measures & its self defence legislation.

Fact: In Australia women are being attacked, assaulted or killed every 2 minutes.
Fact: The Australian government has cut funding to women’s help centers & some of these centers have had to close completely.
Fact: It is illegal in Australia to purchase, carry or use ANYTHING for the sole purpose of self defence or the defence of one’s family. No guns, no pepper sprays, no tasers, no attacker marker paint sprays.
Fact: If you do defend yourself or your family you could be charged with an offence. Recently a farmer defending his family in a home invasion where the predator was armed with a knife & a wooden baton, the farmer used an unloaded rifle to scare & disarm the attacker. The farmer was charged with firearms offences & both he & his wife had their gun licenses suspended & their guns confiscation.
Fact: Home invasions, assaults, attacks, rapes, murder & stabbings appear to be on the increase. Almost every day now there are reports of one or the other.
Fact: If at least some of these people who were attacked had been carrying some form of device that enabled them to defend themselves, then they would have survived & the attacker/s would have been stopped & possibly arrested.
Fact: On more than one occasion in Terrorist attacks in Australia the police were ordered not to kill or arrest the Terrorist when they were able to do so. This allowed the Terrorist to proceed & ended in the death of innocent citizens.
Fact: There was NO coronal enquiry into the Port Arthur massacre in Tasmania which was used by the government to order a confiscation of certain commonly used guns from law abiding citizens. There is no proof  that Martin Bryant was in fact the shooter. There is no proof that if Bryant was the shooter that he acted alone. There is no proof that the government did not orchestrate this massacre just so they could implement the confiscation of law abiding licensed citizen’s guns. There IS proof that the alleged rifle used in these shootings was in fact in police hands before the shootings. This rifle had previously been handed in to the police. So if Bryant was the shooter, who gave him this rifle?

So let’s look at this objectively & sensibly so we can better try & understand what is going on here. What is likely to happen if citizens were allowed to carry & use certain items for defence? Well firstly there would be less innocent people getting robbed, assaulted, raped & murdered. On the other hand we could expect there to be some innocent people injured or even possibly killed due to some nervous people “jumping the gun”, defending themselves when in fact the would be attacker was in fact an innocent person. I think personally that this would still involve less deaths than if we were not allowed to defend ourselves, AND people would NEED to gain a better understanding of the new laws involving self defence. People would need to approach other people with caution & understand the possible danger. IF a person were to “jump the gun” on an innocent person, then it is perfectly reasonable for that person to have their rights to carrying such a protective device revoked.
I think it very reasonable to expect that the cases of home invasions would decrease considerably. Right now criminals know that the majority of Australian homes are in fact defenseless. We are not allowed legally to use guns, pepper sprays, tasers, or anything else expressly for the purpose of defending our families or our homes. If we do decide to defend ourselves or our families then we are not allowed to use excessive force. How can anyone possibly be expected to judge what is excessive force?! Is the government saying that if you are threatened by an intruder with a knife, then you too must arm yourself with a knife & get into a knife fight?! If the intruder is unarmed but bigger & stronger than you are must you defend yourself with your bare hands?! Do you think this sounds reasonable?
I think the solution here lies in education & training. If we were allowed to carry guns on the streets or keep guns at home for defence, then there should be training & education involved in the process of evaluation for ownership & approval.
So, if the government’s purpose is not for the safety & the welfare of the common people, what is their reason/agenda? Could it be simply to gain votes from the anti-gun lobby? Could it be that they simply don’t know what to do to placate the anti-gun lobby & so do the only thing they THINK they can do? Or is there a more sinister reason for wanting to disarm the Australian populace? Then again why the hard stance on self defence? Why would they actually penalize innocent citizens for trying to defend themselves & their families?

Well I think we have thought this through objectively, have we founds any  answers to this problem? For me it comes down to my rights, my right to own anything & want to providing it does no harm to anyone else. My right to defend myself & my family in any reasonable situation, eg you do not shoot a trespasser just because they are on your property, but if you consider they are endangering your life or the lives of your family, then you should have the right to use any means available to you to keep yourself & your family safe from harm.
Firearms Security.
Obviously if you are going to keep a firearm available for defence in your home, then you cannot afford to keep it locked in a gun safe. But this does not mean that it cannot be secured. A trigger lock & even a tether should be acceptable. These precautions would allow one to use the gun for defence in a reasonable short time without allowing the gun to be used against the owner or even stolen. When you are not at home, then the gun should be secured in a gun safe.
Carrying.
If members of the public had been carrying side arms, openly or concealed, then there is a good chance that the Port Arthur shooter & the Terrorist Man Haron Monis would have been shot before they were able to kill anyone. The deaths at the cafĂ© were in fact the direct result of shots fired by the police, not Monis, & this only happened because the police sniper was told to stand down even though he had a clear killing shot of Monis!
Again, education & training are a priority when it comes to being approved for the carrying of a sidearm. I have not to date heard of any problems with open or concealed carry in America. So I don’t see why it would not work here.
Foolproof.
I don’t think any system can be made foolproof, there will always be idiots that will do the wrong thing, but there has to be a better system than what we have now. We simply cannot allow innocent citizens to be left defenseless because we fear there will be accidents or idiots doing the wrong thing. People are dying out there because they are legally unable to defend themselves, & this is NOT good enough!



Friday, October 13, 2017

More on Gun Control & the Recent Firearms Amnesty.


We are seeing the use of terms such as "Illegal", "Arsenals" "guns off the streets" & other sensationalising terms. So who made these guns illegal in the first place? Our government. Some guns being handed in now date back to WW2. All these thousands of "Illegal Guns" have supposedly been "on our streets" since WW2 & we only had one mass shooting which was in Tasmania!!! Don't you think this sounds a little odd?

Now we are hearing about private "arsenals", not collections or ownership but arsenals. Well if these private "arsenals" are such a risk, considered so dangerous, how come we have not had mass shootings like they have had in America? The confiscation of law abiding gun owner's guns after the Port Arthur shooting did nothing to stop crime, because these guns BELONGED to law abiding gun owners. But now you might as well put a poster out front of every Australian home declaring "This House Not Protected With Firearms"!!! Now we are seeing regular home invasions, AND you can face charges if you try to defend yourself or your family. Australian women are attacked & assaulted every 2 minutes in Australia & all the government did was to cut funding to women's help centers!!!

Surely we should have the right to defend ourselves & our families from harm? Yet in Australia it is illegal to purchase or carry ANYTHING for use in self defence, no guns, no pepper sprays, no tasers, not even marking paint!


Farmers used to be able to carry hand guns whilst they went about their daily work. Some carried snake guns which were cut down .410 shotguns for protection against snakes. Not any more. These were law abiding people who were suddenly classed as criminals because the government deemed it so! Shotguns, the farmer's stock in trade along with the little .22 rimfire rifle is now under attack by the Greens & the anti-gun lobby. Semi-auto .22s have already been banned, & now they want our shotguns as well!!!

As I see it it is no good us complaining & protesting against more gun control & the loss of our human rights. We need to put an end to this. Our government is supposed to be looking after our well being, that means ALL OF US. Not just big companies, not just the wealthy, but ALL OF US. This is no longer happening. Whether it be the environment, our safety, our freedoms, our human rights, our well being, or the right to choose our own lifestyle, the right to defend ourselves, our families & our homes. All that is gone now.

I think Australians need to ask themselves where this is all going, is there no end to the government seemingly uncaring attitude. If we have lost the right to defend ourselves & our families without risk of prosecution, then what rights do we have left that matters? People are dieing out there! Do you think that this can't happen to you? If the preservation of our freedom & the right to defend ourselves is NOT the most important thing in our lives, what is?
https://www.centraltelegraph.com.au/news/almost-3000-queensland-guns-be-destroyed/3236243/

Restoring the lost shellfish reefs of Port Philip Bay

Field Dress A Deer Using A Stone Age Flint Knife with Will Lord

Monday, October 2, 2017

'Firearms level field against an aggressor:' Shooters Union Australia.

STATE laws should be changed to protect the rights of homeowners and help vulnerable victims protect themselves against attackers.
That's according to Shooters Union Australia which is calling for the State Government to change ambiguous laws which leave licensed gun owners at risk of prosecution for defending their homes from intruders.
SUA vice president David Brown said the reforms should go further and allow background-checked and licensed residents, including vulnerable women, to carry guns as protection.
"We believe in everyone's right to be background checked and licensed. Also the right to keep firearms for the purpose of self-defence as it is the only means of levelling the playing field against an aggressor," Mr Brown said.

https://www.thechronicle.com.au/news/firearms-level-field-against-aggressor-shooters-un/3230166/

Sunday, October 1, 2017

Bakery workers chase knife-wielding thieves out of Brisbane shop


The legalities of defending yourself, other people & property are in question in Australia. It is illegal to purchase or carry ANYTHING for the sole purpose of self defence. Could these shop workers be charged with a crime? One thief was struck from behind when he was leaving the shop, this too is illegal by Australian law!!! This law needs to be changed. Who is the government protecting, thieves, robbers, murderers, thugs? These laws are NOT protecting law abiding citizens!


Friday, September 29, 2017

Australia's Firearms Amnesty. Security!

Take a look at the holding place for these firearms. They are NOT being held in a secure facility. Shown are roller garage doors & behind this police officer ordinary changing room lockers with the word "Firearms" on the doors! This is what law abiding firearms owners are up against, guns get stolen from police & military facilities & we get the blame. The gun used in the Tasmanian shootings came from a police facility!!! Stolen or sold?!
More images here: http://www.armidaleexpress.com.au/story/4955991/how-many-guns-have-been-handed-in-amnesty-photos/

David Attenborough: On climate change, optimism and Blue Planet II

https://unearthed.greenpeace.org/2017/09/25/david-attenborough-climate-change-science-storytelling-blue-planet-ii/?utm_medium=email&utm_source=gpeace&utm_content=6+-+David+Attenborough+We+arenrsquot+voices+&utm_campaign=weekly&source=weekly

Wednesday, September 27, 2017

Farmer has rifle confiscated for defending his family. Home Invasion!


Bungowannah farmer David Dunstan (a licenced firearm owner) defended his family from an armed intruder (already on the run from a previous local home invasion) with an unloaded rifle and now the police have seized his licensed firearms!
Who are our police protecting by doing this? He lives on a remote property and as a farmer, his firearms are part of his "tools of trade".
The law says we are not to use a greater force to defend ourselves than we are being threatened by. So what happens when the assailant is much bigger & stronger than the victim? Does this mean that David Dunstan should have gone to the kitchen & protected his family with a kitchen knife???!!! Get into a knife fight???!!! We have effectively lost our rights to self defence & the right to protect our loved ones, this means we have lost our freedom!
So what are we going to do about this? Wait for someone else to get killed? Do you know how many people get attacked,injured or killed each day? Australian women are getting assaulted every two minutes every day!!!

Monday, September 25, 2017

Centerfire versus Muzzle-Loader.

Centerfire versus Muzzle-Loader.
In a fire fight no one can deny that it would be better to have a modern cartridge gun than a muzzle-loading gun, but let’s just look at some pros & cons for something to think about.

Post shtf modern ammunition will no longer be available. Modern ammunition is heavy. You may prefer to carry a 9mm Glock or a 357 magnum, but for most people this will mean having to join a pistol club, paying club fees plus the cost of the handgun & the constant purchase of ammunition, because you have to attend regular shoots to retain your membership & your “H” class licence. If you plan on using this handgun post shtf, then you will need to stock up on ammunition, or at least get as much as restrictions will allow. If you are planning on “Bugging In”, then you can get some reloading equipment. It may not be practical though to carry this reloading equipment with you if you have to leave home. It all depends on how heavy & bulky it is & you do not want to compromise your survival by not carrying enough water, food & ready made ammunition. Don’t forget that if you are planning on reloading your own ammo, you will need primers, possibly more brass, smokeless gunpowder & of course lead.

A flintlock pistol only requires gun flints, gunpowder, wads or wadding & lead. Any siliceous rock will work in a flint lock. Black powder, wads & wadding you can make yourself, & lead is easy to come by & you can mould your own ammunition. You can also make paper cartridges for faster reloading if you have a smoothbore. A smoothbore pistol can fire shot & round ball, either or both together.
You do not need a licence, registration or a permit to purchase in NSW (check your own state legislation) if you are buying an antique. You don’t need to carry a lot of lead, as you will only be using this pistol for defence. If you have the stomach for it you can retrieve spend lead from a dead foe or game & remould it. No heavy reloading equipment is required, just a ball mould & a small lead ladle. Gunpowder is light in comparison to lead, so you can carry enough to last you a very long time. If you were to run out of lead, you can substitute other projectiles obtained from nature.


Saturday, September 23, 2017

Sustainability & Long Term Survival.


Sustainability. 
Sustainability/sustainable means lasting  for a long time, or, the ability to make something last for a long time.
If in our preparations for survival we are considering that we may need to live long term in a wilderness situation, then we need to make sure our equipment is sustainable. We also need to make sure that the lifestyle we have chosen is sustainable. In other words, if our equipment is not sustainable, then neither is our lifestyle.

If one has not had the experience, then at least most people can use their imagination to help them see & understand. For instance; let’s say our country is attacked & the enemy uses an EMP to knock out the electricity grid. What will this mean for those living in towns & cities? It will mean that there will be no electricity, no water, no sewage control so no toilets. We all know what else will happen don’t we, looting, supermarkets will be raided for all the food. Chemists looted, gun shops looted, Medical facilities will be hampered. Some people will want what you have, so it will not be safe for you to cook outside or in fact to go outside at all. Your house could be raided, if you manage to repulse an attack, then the attackers may well fire your house or drive a Mack truck through it. Does this make any sense to you?
Now you may say that you must bug in because you simply would not know how to survive in the bush. Well my reply to that is, learn. Get the skills you will need & go bush & get some experience before the shtf.
Now for the equipment. IF you are prepping for long term survival, there is no point relying on items that are NOT sustainable! Ferocerium rods, matches, cigarette lighters, are not sustainable, don’t kid yourself that they are just because you do not have primitive fire lighting skills. Flint, steel & tinderbox is a sustainable method of making fire, & it is an easy method to learn & use. Think about what you have in your bug out pack, do you NEED the items you have, or are they just adding weight & taking up room? Most important items are: Medical supplies, water, food & ammunition. Do NOT compromise the carrying if these items!
Firearms:
I have modern firearms & I have muzzle-loading firearms. IF I had to leave on my own & could only carry one firearm, I choose to carry my flintlock. Why? Because it is sustainable! If it breaks I can fix it. Now I could carry one of my .22 rimfires, the ammunition is relatively light, but if it should malfunction, I simply would not be able to fix it. Yes I could carry a spare firing pin & perhaps the tools needed to strip the bolt & replace the firing pin, but then I still only have a .22, which can not be relied on to drop anything but small game. Yes I know you can shoot roos & goats etc, but how many times have you shot a medium sized animal with a .22 & lost it? I need a gun that I know I can count on, a gun that will efficiently kill small & medium sized game & if possible large game too.
I realize that a flintlock muzzle-loading gun is not the best in a fire fight against others who can load faster than I can, but it only takes one shot to kill, & I plan on keeping a low profile & staying out of fire fights if I can. Now if I am travelling in a group, which in fact I would be if I had to leave my home in the forest, then as a group we would be carrying modern firearms, muzzleloaders & traditional bows. I will add a list of the advantages in carrying/using a flintlock muzzle-loader.  I can see the advantages in carrying a modern firearm, but I can also see the disadvantages, & for me, the disadvantages outweigh the advantages. Reading through this list it is pretty easy to compare these advantages with those of the modern firearm, so see what you think. Do bear in mind the weight factor of modern ammunition, the larger the calibre, the heavier it is. How much can you carry without compromising other important equipment?

Advantages of a Flintlock Muzzle-loader.
1)   Ammo is less expensive than a modern equivalent calibre firearm.
2)  The smoothbore is very versatile, being able to digest round ball, bird shot, & buckshot, or any combination of two of these (can also use minies).
3)  The fusil is lighter to carry than a modern equivalent sized gun.
4)  You can vary the load if needs be.
5)  The smoothbore will digest other projectiles besides lead.
6)  Lead can be retrieved from downed game & remoulded with a simple mould & lead ladle. This means that you can carry less lead, & more of the lighter gunpowder.
7)  You can make your own gunpowder.
8)  You can use the lock to make fire without the need for gunpowder.
9)  You can use gunpowder for gunpowder tinder fire lighting if needs be.
10)        IF the lock should malfunction (these are very robust & it is not likely) you can easily repair it if you are carrying a few spare springs & a few simple tools.
11) If you do not have any spare parts & the lock malfunctions, you can easily convert it to a tinderlock or matchlock & continue using it.
12)        You do not need a reloader, brass shells, caps, or primers. The latter have been known to break down in damp conditions or if they are stored for too long.
13)         Wadding for ball or shot is available from natural plant materials or homemade leather or rawhide.
14)       Less chance of being affected by future ammunition control legislation.
15)        Gunpowder is easily obtainable providing you have a muzzle-loader registered in your name regardless of calibre (NSW)
16)        A .32 calibre flintlock rifle is more powerful than a .22 rimfire, less expensive to feed, more accurate over a greater distance, able to take small & medium sized game, & other than not being able to use shot (unless it is smoothbore), it has all the attributes of the other flintlocks.  For larger game you can load with conical slugs, which of course you can make yourself in the field.
17)        Damage from a .62 calibre or .70 calibre pistol or long arm is in the extreme. Wounded prey is unlikely to escape.
18)         By using buck & ball you are unlikely to miss your target. This load is capable of taking out more than one target.
19)        There is less kick-back to a muzzle-loading gun.
20)       Antique Flintlock muzzle-loading guns do not require a license, registration, or a permit to purchase in NSW Australia.

The Advantages of Carrying/Using 18th Century Equipment.
·      A flintlock smoothbore gun is versatile, you can make fire with the lock without using any gunpowder, you can use various sizes of small shot & round ball, you can if necessary use other projectiles besides lead, you can retrieve lead from shot game & remould it for further use. If the lock should malfunction it is easily repaired with spare springs, if you have no spare springs the lock is easily converted to matchlock.
·      A flintlock rifle has the same advantages as the smoothbore except that it can not use small shot without leading the barrel. A .32 flintlock rifle has more power than a .22 rimfire & is less expensive to shoot.
·      You can purchase an antique flintlock pistol now with no need for licence or registration.
·      Ball moulds can be used as heavy tweezers for removing foreign objects from the body.
·      Gunpowder (Black Powder) can be used to make fire with unprepared plant tinders without wasting ammunition.
·      A trade axe/tomahawk is very versatile. The head is easily removed to be used as a hide scraper, the tomahawk can be thrown for recreation, self defence & hunting. This axe is a good defence weapon for hand to hand fighting, for constructing shelters & traps & for hammering in stakes or wooden pegs. A new helve/handle is easy to make & fit & does not require a wedge to secure the head.
·      The awl is used for making leather items & for repairing leather items. The awl is used to make & repair moccasins.
·      The butcher knife is for skinning & butchering game & can be used for self-defence.
·      The legging knife is a back-up to the butcher knife. If you should dull the edge on your butcher knife you can continue with the legging knife. You do not want to stay around sharpening blades. Your shot may have attracted unwanted attention.
·      The clasp knife is used for camp chores & for making trap triggers. You do not want to use your main blades as utility knives.
·      Flint, steel & tinderbox will enable you to make fire anywhere in all weather conditions. It will not break or wear out & the process is renewable & sustainable.
·      18th century woodsrunner’s clothing (men & women) is practicle, protective, hard wearing & renewable.
·      The housewife (sewing kit) is for making & repairing clothing & packs. The needles can be used for removing splinters & if needs be sewing up wounds. The beeswax is used to wax the linen sewing thread & can be used as makeshift tooth fillings.
·      The angling tackle can be used with a rod or set lines, it can also be used for catching ducks & large land fowl. The linen or silk lines can be replaced with hand made cordage made from plant materials. Silk lines can be used as suture thread.
·      The cooking kettle is used for boiling food, boiling water for drinks & sterilising, carrying water & for catching rainwater.
·      Cotton & linen bags can be used for cleaning dirty water before boiling for drinking or adding to your water bottle.
·      Gun tools are used for repairing the lock on your flintlock muzzle-loading gun if needs be, but these locks are very hard wearing. The tools are merely a back-up. The turn screw is used to remove the lock & barrel for cleaning.
·      The whet stone is used to sharpen your blades, as is the metal file, though both could have other uses if working with metal.
·      The half-axe is optional & is capable of heavier work than the tomahawk without adding too much weight.
·      An auger is optional & is used for making holes for constructing more permanent dwellings. These augers come in a variety of sizes & weigh very little. Small versions will fit in your pack, where longer versions can be tied to your blanket roll.
·      The sword is also optional but in a hand to hand fight can be very useful. The sword is also used for cutting reeds for shelter & mat construction.
·      The wool blanket is far more versatile than a sleeping bag, & if wet the blanket retains more body heat than a sleeping bag. The pure wool blanket can be used as a matchcoat or a Great Coat & can be used in a sitting position under an oilcloth covering on the trail.
·      The oilcloth shelter is very versatile & can be used in many ways, including use as a rain coat. Used as a lean-to shelter you can use fire for warmth at night & you have good visibility on at least three sides. The lean-to is easy & quick to construct & quickly taken down. It does not need tent poles/rods & it is easy to carry.



Anyone using this equipment is advised to learn the many primitive skills that go with this type of wilderness living. If you are living this 18th century lifestyle then your level of comfort will never drop below this level. This equipment does not wear out; anything that could break can be repaired or replaced from natural sources. You are also advised to carry a modern medical kit which should include an eye wash glass.

My Equipment List.
.62 cal/20 gauge flintlock fusil. 42 inch barrel.
.70 caliber smoothbore flintlock pistol.
Gun tools and spare lock parts.
Shot pouch and contents.
Leather drawstring pouch of .60 caliber ball (in knapsack).
Powder horn.
Ball mould and swan shot mould.
5 Gunpowder wallets
Lead ladle.
Butcher/Hunting knife.
Legging knife.
Clasp knife.
Tomahawk.
Fire bag.
Tinderbox.
Belt pouch.
Fishing tackle in brass container.
Two brass snares.
Roll of brass snare wire.
Knapsack.
Scrip.
Market Wallet.
Tin Cup.
Kettle.
Water filter bags (cotton & linen bags).
Medical pouch.
Housewife.
Piece of soap and a broken ivory comb.
Dried foods in bags.
Wooden spoon.
Compass.
Whet stone.
Small metal file.
Oilcloth.
One blanket (Monmouth cap, spare wool waistcoat and wool shirt rolled inside blanket).
Two glass saddle flasks.
Length of hemp rope.
Bottle of rum.
Basic list of what I carry. This list is made up from items that we know were carried, from items that my research has shown were available, & from items that have been found, such as the brass snare wire. I am not saying every woodsrunner carried all these items, but I am saying that some woodsrunners may have carried all these items. From experimental archaeology results in historical trekking, I think the items I have chosen are a reasonable choice for any woodsrunner that is going to live in the wilderness for a year or more.

Keith.